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Poland Stamps and Poland Postal History

Polish Flag - Stamps and Postal History

History

Poczta Polska, the Polish postal service, was founded in 1558. The three partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795 saw the independent nation of Poland and the Polish postal service disappear. The postal services in the areas occupied by Germany, Austria and Russia were absorbed into these countries postal services.

The Free City of Kraków was established in 1815. Under the constitution that it had been given the city was responsible for the post. Prussia, Austria and Congress Kingdom all established post offices in the Free City of Kraków to collect mail for delivery to their respective countries. Various different handstamps were used; KRAKAU by Prussia, CRACAU by Austria and KRAKÓW by Congress Poland.

The Free City was annexed by Austria on 16 November 1846 as the Grand Duchy of Cracow.

In the Russian occupied area, Congress Kingdom was established and in 1855 control of the postal services was briefly given to the Congress Kingdom, but following an uprising in 1863 it again came under Russian control from 1866 and continued so until World War I.

While the Congress Poland had control of its postal service the first Polish stamp was issued in January 1860 and it was in use till April 1865, during which time a total of nearly 3 million of these stamps were used.

During World War 1 Austria occupied the southern part of Congress Poland. No special stamps were issued. Austrian field post offices were set up which used postmarks with Polish town names.

The area occupied by Germany was named General-Gouvernement Warschau and on 5 November 1916 it was proclaimed a "Polish Kingdom" by both Germany and Austria.

On 12 May 1915 German stamps overprinted "Russisch-Polen" were first issued for use in the German occupied area at the time.

On 1 August 1916, after the fall of Warsaw and the complete occupation of northern Poland, stamps overprinted "Gen.-Gouv. Warschau" were issued to replace those issued in 1915.

The occupying forces did not provide any local delivery service; they left it to town councils to set up their own local delivery services. Some of these councils produced stamps for providing this service others just used cachets, which were stamped on the letters. Most of the stamps were produced without permission of the occupying authorities.

In November 1918 the Second Polish Republic was created and regular issues of stamps commenced.

Poland 1958 stamp for 400th annivesary
a stamp from the miniature sheet issued on 26 October 1958 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the Polish Post

1958 was the 400th anniversary of the Polish postal service and it was commemorated with an issue of seven stamps, a miniature sheet, a book "400 Lat Poczty Polskiej", a stamp exhibition in Warsaw and a number of commemorative postmarks.

"The soul of Poland is indestructible... she will rise again as a rock, which may for a spell be submerged by a tidal wave, but which remains a rock."  ~ Winston Churchill, speech in the House of Commons, 1 October 1939.


Philatelic Societies for Collectors of Polish Stamps & Postal History

Society for Polish Philately in Great Britain - Stowarzyszenie Polskiej Filatelistyki w W.Brytanii
Meetings: Sunday of each month 4.00pm – 6.00pm at the Polish White Eagle Club, 211 Balham High Street, London.
Postal auctions held twice per year. Tel. 01322 273072 for more information.

Polonus Philatelic Society (USA)
Founded in February 1939 by Chester Mikucki. Polonus has grown from a "local Chicago club" into one of the largest and most active specialized philatelic societies in the world and now boasts a large international membership.

PolishStamps · Discussion about Polish stamps 
Yahoo e-mail group for stamp collectors maintained by Jan Prygoda (Netherlands)


New Issues of Polish Stamps

order stamps direct from Poland

Polish Post Office
Mostly in Polish – Not easy for an English speaking person to place order.


1979 Reprints of the 1944 National Heroes issue

1944 Poland National Heroes Proof
In 1979 reprints of the 1944 proof (shown above) were supplied with book "Poczta Polska w 1944 roku" together with reprints of complete sheets of the 3 stamps in original colours, using original plates.

to see the complete sheets etc, as supplied in the book, click links below
25gr    50gr    1zl    Proof    Envelope


Links to pages on Stamp Domain about Poland Stamps and Poland Postal History

Unlisted 1915 Poland overprint on Austria Feldpost
What is this item? - On the reverse of the stamp there is an expertisation handstamp "Heintze".

Poland Postal History 1918
The period, commencing with the independence of Poland till the issue of the first definitive stamps by the Polish Ministry of Post & Telegraph, forms without doubt the most interesting part of Polish Postal History.

Poland Postal History 1917- Krolestwo Polskie Essays
In early 1917 Germany was confident of winning the war and was planning to restore the Polish monarchy, when the war ended, under German rule. So in the early part of 1917 the German Authorities requested the Polish Civil Administration in Warsaw to arrange for a submission of designs, by Polish designers, for a definitive series of stamps for this planned Kingdom of Poland.

Allenstein Stamps & Postal History
A plebiscite was held on 11 July 1920 to determine whether the people of the district of Allenstein wished to remain in East Prussia or become part of Poland. German stamps were overprinted OLSZTYN ALLENSTEIN and were on sale from 3 April 1920 till 20 August.
Allenstein is now Olyszyn in Poland

1921 Aero-Targ Air Post Stamps
The Aerotarg company, following an agreement with the Polish Ministry of Post & Telegraph, issued the Aero-Targ Air Post Stamps 
with T.A.B.R.O.M.I.K. advert label.


Postal Rates in Poland 1923-1933

Poland Postal History - RUDNIK n/ SANEM 1944
On the 26th July 1944 Rudnik nad Sanem was liberated  from German occupation and on the 31st July 1944 the local Post Office was re-opened in the town by, the postmaster, Wojciech Kosierb. 

Inter-Camp Polish Post in Germany in 1945
During the second world war a large number of Polish people were taken to Germany. Some as prisoners, some as forced labour, some were taken into the armed forces and some were simply made to move to live in Germany.

Postal History of Wroclaw
A look at the history and postal history of this city. The city has seen stamps of Prussia, North German Confedaration, Germany and now Poland being used in its post offices.

Polish Field Post Offices during WW2 - Poczta Polowa

Poland Philatelic Bibliography
A comprehensive listing of English language books on Polish stamps and Polish postal history

A letter from a WWII Polish Soldier to his bank!
Envelope with a 1945 postmark of Field Post Office 252 and a Polish postal cryptonym P/40 S addressed to the Bank of Scotland, Edinburgh.

POLAND 1944 NATIONAL HEROES
Poland 1944 National Heroes SG499-501, Romuald Traugutt, Tadeusz Kosciuszko, Henryk Dabrowski
Romuald Traugutt          Tadeusz Kosciuszko         Henryk Dabrowski
Poland 1944 National Heroes SG499-501
Issued 7 September 1944


1943 GENERAL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS

Poland Officials used 1943 Lancut

Poland Officials used 1943 Lancut

Poland Officials used 1943 Lancut
A Complete set of the Official stamps issued on 16 February 1943 used on three registered covers. Postmarked 10.7.43 Landshut Dist Krakau with Lancut registration labels. All these stamps have been taken from the bottom right corner of the sheets complete with margins.

This attractive set of covers is now available for sale on Delcampe - Lancut 1943 covers


More Links to pages on Polish Stamps and Polish Postal History

A selection of links by Stamp Domain

Postage stamps and postal history of Poland
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Groszy" Provisional Issues of Poland 1950-1952
This exhibit, from the George K Zelwinder Gold Medal Collection, displays all officially approved district overprints as well as small local offices that made their own creations for overprinting.

The Road to Auschwitz
by Ian Nutley

Post Offices of Former Austrian Territories - Poland
by Andy Taylor, Austrian Philatelic Society
The original listing on http://www.austrianphilately.com/pobook/index.htm is no longer available but a web.archive.org copy is available on the above link


Stamps of Poland
by Andre Mongeon

Local stamps 1918
by Andre Mongeon

Przedborz Stamps
by Sam Ginsburg
An extensive site about the local stamps issued during World War One. The occupying forces did not provide any local delivery service; they left it to town council set up local delivery services. Some of these councils produced stamps for providing this service others used cachets, which were stamped on the letters. Most of the stamps which were issued, were produced without permission of the occupying authorities. Przedborz is one of those town which issued its own stamps.

Lager/Camp post
by Andre Mongeon

Stamp Issues by the Polish Government in Exile
by Edward Nowak, Sr.

Polish Stamps designed by Czeslaw Slania
by Ann Mette Heindorff

The Austro-Hungarian Army 1914-18
by John Dixon-Nutall
For collectors of its postal items

The Polish Collector
by Andre Mongeon

Why Polish stamps are worth collecting
Stamp Blog by Jack Shamash
A lot of 'serious' collectors are a bit sniffy about stamps from Eastern Europe...

Polish Field Post 1968, in Czechoslovakia
Polish troops took part in the occupation of Czechoslovakia on 21.8.1968. They were withdrawn soon and replaced by Soviet ones. Mail to/from Poland went through the central field post office of the 2nd army (in Hradec Kralove) and the civil Polish post office Klodzko 3.

Stamp Encyclopedia Poland
by Ben Nieborg
Stamp Encyclopaedia Poland is an online catalogue for the stamps of Poland and related stamp collecting areas

Poland & World War II 1939-1945: A Philatelic View
by R V Skulski

Poland 1919 - 1922. Postal Stationery - The defnitive Eagle Issues
by Erik Hvidberg Hansen

Mail from Poland to the International Red Cross in Geneva, Switzerland (during the early post-WWII period)
by Jay T Carrigan
 
Ghettos and Other Jewish Communities in Eastern Europe
by Edward Victor
Some 400 Ghettos were established in Poland during WW2. The mail was handled by a Council of Jewish Elders (Judenrats) which was established in each of the Ghettos. Comprehensive details are given about Ghettos in the following towns in Poland: Bedzin (Bendsburg), Belzyce, Beuthen (Bytom), Biecz, Bielsko (Bielitz), Bochnia, Borek Falecki, Brody, Brzeziny (Lowenstadt), Buczacz, Busko-Zdroj, Chmielnik, Czestochowa, Czortkow, Dabrowa Tarnowska, Dombrowa Gornicza, Dzialoszyce, Frystzak, Glusk, Gorzkowice, Grabow, Hrubieszow, Izbica, Jaslo, Jezow, Kamiensk, Kielce, Klodada (Tonningen), Kolo (Muhlental), Koniecpol, Konskie, Konskowola, Kosow Lacki, Krakow, Krasnystaw-Izbica, Kroscienko (II), Krosniewice, Kutno, Lagow, Lancut, Lentschutz (Leczyca), Lodz (Litzmannstadt), Lomzha, Lowenstadt (Brzeziny), Lowicz, Lublin, Lukow, Lvov (Lemberg), Miedzyrzec Podlaski, Modliborzyce, Nowy Sacz (Neu-Sandez), Nowy Targ (Neumarkt), Oleszno, Olpiny, Opatow, Opoczno, Opole, Osjakow, Ostrowiec, Otwock, Ozorkow, Pabiance, Pacanow, Pajeczno (Pfeilstett), Piaski Luterskie, Piotrkow Trybunalski, Piotrowice, Plonsk, Potok Zloty, Praszka, Przedborz, Przemysl, Przysucha, Radomsko, Ranizow, Rawa Mazowiecka, Rejowiec, Rozwadow, Rzeszow, Sanok, Siedlce, Sokolow Malopolski, Sokolow Podlaski, Sosnowiec, Stanislau (Stanislawow), Staszow, Sterdyn, Tarnogrod, Tarnow, Tlumacz, Tomaszow Mazowiecki, Tschenstochau (Czestochowa), Warsaw, Wegrow, Wieliczka, Wisnicz Nowy, Zawiercie, Zbaraz, Zdunska Wola, Zelow, Zychlin


Museums with Polish Stamps and Polish Postal History

Muzeum Poczty i Telekomunikacji
ul Krasinskiego nr 1, skr poczt 2030, 50-954 Wroclaw, Poland
Specialised collections of Poland, includes a large library of philatelic literature in Polish and foreign languages.

The British Library, London
Bojanowicz Collection of Polish Postal History 1938-1949. Presented by M A Bojanowicz to the British Library in 1966.
Covers the wartime posts in Poland and of the Polish Free Forces.