In 1821 Egyptian forces invaded and conquered the northern part of Sudan.
Sudanese opposition, in 1881, under Muhammad Ahmad ibn Abd Allah, the Mahdi, put an end to the Egyptian occupation.
Lord Kitchener led military campaigns against the Mahdists from 1896 to 1898. Kitchener's campaigns culminated in a
decisive victory in the Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898.
In 1899, Britain and Egypt reached an agreement under which Sudan was run by a governor-general appointed by Egypt with British consent.
In reality Sudan was effectively administered as a British colony.
Sudan was jointly administered by Egypt and Great Britain untill 1954 when it was granted Self-Government.
On the 1st January 1956 Sudan became an independent republic. (by declaring independence from Egypt and UK)
Following a referendum held in January 2011,
seceded on 9 July 2011 with the consent of Sudan and became a separate independent conuntry.
Between 1894 and 1896 a post office in Kassala (Cassala) was operated by Italy using stamps of Eritrea .
The first stamps for Sudan were issued on 1st March 1897.
From 1899 till 1910 Southern Sudan was administered by Uganda and stamps of Uganda or Uganda and East Africa were used in this area.
The Lado Enclave was leased by Great Britain to Belgium between 1887 and 1910 and stamps of the Belgian Congo were used in this province.
Philatelic Societies for collector of Sudan Stamps and Sudan Postal History
Sudan Study Group The Sudan Study Group (SSG) was formed in 1977 by a group of enthusiasts who were at the time, members of the Oriental Philatelic Association of London (OPAL),
but recognised the need for a separate group devoted solely to the study of Sudanese stamps, postal history and related subjects. Since then the membership of the Group
has grown to 110 worldwide.
New Issues of Sudan Stamps
Bureau Philatetique, Ministere des PTT, Khartoum, Sudan
Selected pages on Sudan Stamps and Sudan Postal History
from Murray Payne Ltd Sudan is, to my mind, a kind of microcosm of the English view of ĎDarkest Africaí. Huge, hot, sandy, utterly foreign and with more
than a whiff of danger, but with an allure that attracted many, in some ways it hasnít changed that much since the nineteenth century.
Newspaper Wrappers from Sudan
from Stamp Domain Newspaper Wrappers, in Sudan, were first issued in 1898, the year of the Battle of Omudurman, by overprinting Egyptian 1 mill and 2 mill
newspaper wrappers with "SOUDAN" and Al-Sudan in arabic script.
19th Century Campaigns in Egypt and the Sudan
by John Firebrace, published by the Stuart Rossiter Trust, 1997, 218pp, ISBN 978 0 9527177 3 7 Fourteen campaigns from the French, 1798-1801 through the Nile Expedition, 1897-1900, the basic history and postal history followed by pages from the author's collection.
Most of the pages are reproductions of selected covers, and autograph letters from the Author’s famous collection that was awarded Gold and Large Gold medals in
1978 and 1980. Over 40 pages of specially written text and more than a dozen maps help to tell the story of the French Campaigns of 1798-1801, the Arabi rebellion of 1882,
the Mahdi 1881-1885, the Hicks disaster of 1883, Suakin 1884, the Nile Expedition of 1884-5, the Suakin Expedition of 1885-6, captives of the Khalifa,
the Donglola Expedition of 1896, Suakin 1896, Nile Expeditions of 1897-8 and 1898-1900, the Marchand Expedition of 1898 and the Army of Occupation 1882-1900.
Belgian Congo: The Lado Enclave and Cancellations on Mail Sent Via Congo and Nile Rivers
by Abbe G Gudenkauf, published 1986, ISBN 0947628495
British Empire Campaigns and Occupations in the Near East, 1914-1924: A Postal History
by John Firebrace, 1991, 460pp Book with 100 pages of illustrations of postmarks, censor marks, stationery and cachets, 15 maps, a bibliography and two appendices. This is a monumental
study of postal history of British, Indian, Australian and New Zealand’s participation in Campaigns in Egypt, Gallipoli, Salonica, and the Sudan,
and the Military Occupations of Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, and more.
British Military Operations in Egypt and the Sudan: A Selected Bibliography
By Harold E. Raugh Jr
The Camel Postman 1898-1998
by Richard Stock, published by the Sudan Study Group, 2001, 80pp, ISBN 0953038416
Post Offices and Postal Agencies of the Sudan 1970 – 1983
by H R J Davies, 1984, Sudan Study Group
The Postage Stamps of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
by Douglas Brawn Armstrong, published by Bright & Son, 1912, 72pp The London Philatelist reviewed the book as follows -
'This volume constitutes the first number of a new series of monographs which Messrs. Bright and Son are about to issue, "treating of the postage stamp issues of
countries adapted to the requirements of the moderate specialist." The general outline is very similar to that of other short monographs already published,
the chapters dealing with a description of the country, supplemented by a good map, the Postal Service, Temporary and Permanent Issues, Unpaids and Officials,
both civil and military, also a useful feature, viz. Postmarks, a summary of the stamps being given after each issue. Very clear illustrations of the stamps,
surcharges, etc., are provided, but there appears to be some mistake between the illustration on page 30 and its description in the text, as they do not correspond.
The work as a whole is really good and eminently suitable for the moderate specialist, for whose benefit it has been produced.'
The Postage Stamps of Sudan
by T F Marriner, published by D Field, 1915 The London Philatelist reviewed the book as follows -
No. 10 of the West End Philatelist's handbooks well sustains the well-won reputation of a now familiar series. Reprinted from the W.E.P. after revision by the editor,
Mr. Marriner's re-presented articles make attractive reading. The illustrations are numerous and perfect of their kind, and the descriptive letterpress, whether historical,
geographical, or philatelical, characteristic of the best output of the house of Field. The Sudan group of stamps furnishes a tempting study for the earnest student,
and under Mr. Marriner's tuition the happy victim of its charm could not fail to find keen enjoyment. A view of the Khartoum Post Office serves as a capital frontispiece,
but the absence of a map of the Nile valley and adjacent territories is to be regretted.
Postal History of the Lado Enclave 1897-1910
by Abbe Gudenkauf, publishedby the Belgian Congo Study Circle. Abbe Gudenkauf lays to rest the notion that a Lado cover is always identified by Congo stamps with a manuscript Lado cancellation and the Khartoum Retta.
He examines the 15 types of Lado covers, including the majority of Lado covers which bear Sudan stamps and were carried on Khartoum steamers.
Sections include the postal history of the Lado Enclave: via the Congo, via Uganda, via the Nile with Congo stamps, via the Nile with Sudan stamps,
Mixed frankings from the Uele District, via the Nile to the Enclave. Every aspect of the postal history is dealt with. There are many illustrations of the
postmarks, covers, postal stationery etc., also maps and tables.
The Stamps of Egypt
by Leon Balian, 1998 Contains all the varieties known and the quantities printed.
Stamps of Egypt with Egypt used in Palestine and Sudan, Book 2
by Leon Balian, 2007 Plate flaws of Egypt 1940-1980; French Post Offices in Egypt and their stationery; airmail issue of 1933. This is a complete recap of the original catalogue.
March 1950 issue of Gibbons Stamp Monthly, pp 84-85
Modern Sudanese Stamps, by Harold G D Gisburn This article, written by one of the co-authors of the 1947 book, "Stamps and Posts of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan", continues where the book finished.
It covers the January 1948 Camel issue, the October 1948 Golden Jubilee issue and the December 1948 Legislature issue.